William A. Darity

William A. Darity

Professor of African and African American Studies

External Address: 
238 Sanford Inst Bldg, Durham, NC 27708
Internal Office Address: 
Box 90245, Durham, NC 27708-0245
(919) 613-7336


William A. (“Sandy”) Darity Jr. is the Samuel DuBois Cook Professor of Public Policy, African and African American Studies, and Economics and the director of the Samuel DuBois Cook Center on Social Equity at Duke University. He has served as chair of the Department of African and African American Studies and was the founding director of the Research Network on Racial and Ethnic Inequality at Duke. Previously he served as director of the Institute of African American Research, director of the Moore Undergraduate Research Apprenticeship Program, director of the Undergraduate Honors Program in economics, and director of Graduate Studies at the University of North Carolina. at Chapel Hill.

Darity’s research focuses on inequality by race, class and ethnicity, stratification economics, schooling and the racial achievement gap, North-South theories of trade and development, skin shade and labor market outcomes, the economics of reparations, the Atlantic slave trade and the Industrial Revolution, the history of economics, and the social psychological effects of exposure to unemployment.

He was a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation (2015-2016), a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (2011-2012) at Stanford, a fellow at the National Humanities Center (1989-90) and a visiting scholar at the Federal Reserve’s Board of Governors (1984). He received the Samuel Z. Westerfield Award in 2012 from the National Economic Association, the organization's highest honor, Politico 50 recognition in 2017, and an award from Global Policy Solutions in 2017. He is a past president of the National Economic Association and the Southern Economic Association. He also has taught at Grinnell College, the University of Maryland at College Park, the University of Texas at Austin, Simmons College and Claremont-McKenna College.

He has served as Editor in Chief of the latest edition of the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, (Macmillan Reference, 2008) and as an Associate Editor of the 2006 edition of the Encyclopedia of Race and Racism (2013).

His most recent book, coauthored with A. Kirsten Mullen, is From Here to Equality: Reparations for Black Americans in the 21st Century (2020). Previous books include For-Profit Universities: The Shifting Landscape of Marketized Education (2010) (co-edited Tressie McMillan Cottom), Economics, Economists, and Expectations: Microfoundations to Macroapplications (2004) (co-authored with Warren Young and Robert Leeson), and Boundaries of Clan and Color: Transnational Comparisons of Inter-Group Disparity (2003) (co-edited with Ashwini Deshpande).He has published or edited 13 books and published more than300 articles in professional outlets.

Darity lives with his family in Durham, N.C. where he plays blues harmonica, occasionally coaches youth sports, and especially enjoys reading science fiction and speculative fiction. (On leave, 2015-2016)

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1978

  • B.A., Brown University 1974

Selected Grants

Religion, Spirituality and CVD Risks: A Focus on African Americans awarded by National Institutes of Health (Co-Principal Investigator). 2017 to 2022

Income Supplements versus Building Wealth awarded by Ford Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2021 to 2022

Broadening Participation in STEM Faculty: A Program to Support the Diversity Initiative for Tenure in Economics (DITE) awarded by National Science Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2019 to 2022

DITE Program Support awarded by William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2020 to 2021

Race and Underserved Communities: COVID-19 and its Economic and Social Impact on Businesses in Durham, North Carolina awarded by JPMorgan Chase Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2020 to 2021

RAPID: Understanding the Disparate Impact of COVID-19 awarded by National Science Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2020 to 2021

Evaluating Proposals for a Federal Job Guarantee awarded by Nathan Cummings Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2018 to 2020


Darity, W. “Understanding the subaltern native middle class.” History, Methodology and Identity for a 21st Century Social Economics, 2019, pp. 89–98.

Goldsmith, A. H., et al. “Race, cognitive skills, psychological capital and wages.” Leading Issues in Black Political Economy, 2018, pp. 173–86.

Darity, W. A., et al. “Stratification economics: A general theory of intergroup inequality.” The Hidden Rules of Race: Barriers to an Inclusive Economy, 2017, pp. 35–51. Scopus, doi:10.1017/9781108277846.003. Full Text

Sharpe, R. V., et al. “Who attends for-profit institutions?: The enrollment landscape.” For-Profit Universities: The Shifting Landscape of Marketized Higher Education, 2017, pp. 119–57. Scopus, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47187-7_7. Full Text

Tyson, K., et al. “It’s not “a black thing”: Understanding the burden of acting white and other dilemmas of high achievement.” Exploring Education: An Introduction to the Foundations of Education, 2017, pp. 406–30. Scopus, doi:10.4324/9781315408545-26. Full Text

Darity, W. “The simple analytics of aggregate demand price and aggregate supply price analysis.” Inflation and Income Distribution in Capitalist Crisis: Essays in Memory of Sidney Weintraub, 2016, pp. 9–24. Scopus, doi:10.1007/978-1-349-08833-1. Full Text

Darity, W., et al. “The political economy of U.S. Energy and equity policy.” High Energy Costs: Assessing the Burden, 2015, pp. 170–219.

Carter, T. A., et al. Introduction. 2015, pp. 3–22. Scopus, doi:10.14325/mississippi/9781628462425.003.0011. Full Text

Darity, W. “Eric Williams and color: Stratification in the Caribbean.” The Legacy of Eric Williams: Into the Postcolonial Moment, 2015, pp. 109–25.

Darity, W. “Confronting those affirmative action grumbles.” Capitalism on Trial: Explorations in the Tradition of Thomas E. Weisskopf, 2013, pp. 215–23.


Darity, W., et al. “A subaltern middle class: The case of the missing “Black bourgeoisie” in America.” Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 39, no. 3, July 2021, pp. 494–502. Scopus, doi:10.1111/coep.12476. Full Text

Richardson, Eugene T., et al. “Reparations for Black American descendants of persons enslaved in the U.S. and their potential impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission.Social Science & Medicine (1982), vol. 276, May 2021, p. 113741. Epmc, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.113741. Full Text

Francis, D. V., and W. A. Darity. “Separate and unequal under one roof: How the legacy of racialized tracking perpetuates within-school segregation.” Rsf, vol. 7, no. 1, Feb. 2021, pp. 187–202. Scopus, doi:10.7758/RSF.2021.7.1.11. Full Text

Diette, T. M., et al. “Does the negro need separate schools? A retrospective analysis of the racial composition of schools and black adult academic and economic success.” Rsf, vol. 7, no. 1, Feb. 2021, pp. 166–86. Scopus, doi:10.7758/RSF.2021.7.1.10. Full Text

Bentley-Edwards, K. L., et al. “Denominational Differences in Obesity Among Black Christian Adults: Why Gender and Life Stage Matter.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Jan. 2021. Scopus, doi:10.1111/jssr.12722. Full Text

Bentley-Edwards, Keisha L., et al. “Investigating Denominational and Church Attendance Differences in Obesity and Diabetes in Black Christian Men and Women.J Relig Health, vol. 59, no. 6, Dec. 2020, pp. 3055–70. Pubmed, doi:10.1007/s10943-019-00888-6. Full Text

Robbins, Paul A., et al. “Correction to: Denominational and Gender Differences in Hypertension Among African American Christian Young Adults.J Racial Ethn Health Disparities, Nov. 2020. Pubmed, doi:10.1007/s40615-020-00919-z. Full Text

Robbins, Paul A., et al. “Denominational and Gender Differences in Hypertension Among African American Christian Young Adults.J Racial Ethn Health Disparities, Oct. 2020. Pubmed, doi:10.1007/s40615-020-00895-4. Full Text

Jackson, Fleda Mask, et al. “A Prematurity Collaborative Birth Equity Consensus Statement for Mothers and Babies.Maternal and Child Health Journal, vol. 24, no. 10, Oct. 2020, pp. 1231–37. Epmc, doi:10.1007/s10995-020-02960-0. Full Text

Craemer, T., et al. “Wealth Implications of Slavery and Racial Discrimination for African American Descendants of the Enslaved.” Review of Black Political Economy, vol. 47, no. 3, Sept. 2020, pp. 218–54. Scopus, doi:10.1177/0034644620926516. Full Text


Darity, W. A. “Disposal of an old orthodoxy reading Eric Williams' dissertation.” Review (United States), vol. 35, no. 2, 2012, pp. 169–75.