Charmaine DM Royal

Associate Professor in the Department of African and African American Studies

External Address: 
234 Friedl Bldg, Box 90252, Durham, NC 27708-0141
Internal Office Address: 
Duke Box 90252, Durham, NC 27708
(919) 668-6515
Office Hours: 
By appointment


Charmaine Royal is a geneticist and bioethicist whose research and teaching focus on ethical and social issues in genetics and genomics, particularly the intersection of "race" and genetics, its policy implications, and practical interventions. Her primary research areas include genetic ancestry inference, public and professional conceptions and uses of race, and gene-environment interactions. She is director of the Duke Center on Genomics, Race, Identity, Difference (GRID) that aims to influence and transform the concepts, uses, and impacts of race in the conduct of scientific and scholarly research, the practice of medicine, and the lives of individuals, communities, and societies.


Education & Training

  • Ph.D., Howard University 1997

  • M.S., Howard University 1992

Public Perspectives and Experience Regarding Genetic Ancestry Testing awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2012 to 2016

Perspectives and Experience Regarding the NCAA Sickle Cell Trait Testing awarded by National Collegiate Athletic Association (Principal Investigator). 2013 to 2015

Ethics as a Guide for the Use of "Race" and Ancestry in Research and Clinical Practice awarded by Greenwall Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2009 to 2015

Royal, CDM, and FitzGerald, K. "Race, Genetics, and Ethics." African American Bioethics: Culture, Race, and Identity. Ed. ED Pellegrino. Georgetown University Press, May 3, 2007. 137-152.

Royal, CDM, and Dunston, G. "The Human Genome: Implications for the Health of African Americans." Praeger handbook of Black American health. Ed. IL Livingston. Praeger Publishers, June 2004. 757-775.

Kittles, R, and Royal, C. "The genetics of African Americans: Implications for disease gene mapping and identity." Genetic Nature/Culture: Anthropology and Science beyond the Two-Culture Divide. November 6, 2003. 219-233.

McDonald, MA, Creary, MS, Powell, J, Daley, L-A, Baker, C, and Royal, CD. "Perspectives and Practices of Athletic Trainers and Team Physicians Implementing the 2010 NCAA Sickle Cell Trait Screening Policy." Journal of genetic counseling (June 3, 2017). Full Text

Wagner, JK, Yu, J-H, Ifekwunigwe, JO, Harrell, TM, Bamshad, MJ, and Royal, CD. "Anthropologists' views on race, ancestry, and genetics." American journal of physical anthropology 162.2 (February 2017): 318-327. Full Text

Mulder, N, Nembaware, V, Adekile, A, Anie, KA, Inusa, B, Brown, B, Campbell, A, Chinenere, F, Chunda-Liyoka, C, Derebail, VK, Geard, A, Ghedira, K, Hamilton, CM, Hanchard, NA, Haendel, M, Huggins, W, Ibrahim, M, Jupp, S, Kamga, KK, Knight-Madden, J, Lopez-Sall, P, Mbiyavanga, M, Munube, D, Nirenberg, D, Nnodu, O, Ofori-Acquah, SF, Ohene-Frempong, K, Opap, KB, Panji, S, Park, M, Pule, G, Royal, C, Sangeda, R, Tayo, B, Treadwell, M, Tshilolo, L, and Wonkam, A. "Proceedings of a Sickle Cell Disease Ontology workshop — Towards the first comprehensive ontology for Sickle Cell Disease." Applied & Translational Genomics 9 (June 2016): 23-29. Full Text

Bonham, VL, Callier, SL, and Royal, CD. "Will Precision Medicine Move Us beyond Race?." The New England journal of medicine 374.21 (May 2016): 2003-2005. Full Text

Christensen, KD, Roberts, JS, Whitehouse, PJ, Royal, CDM, Obisesan, TO, Cupples, LA, Vernarelli, JA, Bhatt, DL, Linnenbringer, E, Butson, MB, Fasaye, G-A, Uhlmann, WR, Hiraki, S, Wang, N, Cook-Deegan, R, and Green, RC. "Disclosing Pleiotropic Effects During Genetic Risk Assessment for Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized Trial." Annals of internal medicine 164.3 (February 2016): 155-163. Full Text

Auton, A, Brooks, LD, Durbin, RM, Garrison, EP, Kang, HM, Korbel, JO, Marchini, JL, McCarthy, S, McVean, GA, and Abecasis, GR. "A global reference for human genetic variation." Nature 526.7571 (October 2015): 68-74. Full Text

Green, RC, Christensen, KD, Cupples, LA, Relkin, NR, Whitehouse, PJ, Royal, CDM, Obisesan, TO, Cook-Deegan, R, Linnenbringer, E, Butson, MB, Fasaye, G-A, Levinson, E, and Roberts, JS. "A randomized noninferiority trial of condensed protocols for genetic risk disclosure of Alzheimer's disease." Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 11.10 (October 2015): 1222-1230. Full Text

Wonkam, A, Makani, J, Ofori-Aquah, S, Nnodu, OE, Treadwell, M, Royal, C, and Ohene-Frempong, K. "Sickle cell disease and H3Africa: enhancing genomic research on cardiovascular diseases in African patients: review article." Cardiovascular Journal Of Africa 26.2 (April 30, 2015): S50-S55. Full Text

Peprah, E, Xu, H, Tekola-Ayele, F, and Royal, CD. "Genome-wide association studies in Africans and African Americans: expanding the framework of the genomics of human traits and disease." Public health genomics 18.1 (January 2015): 40-51. (Review) Full Text

Wonkam, A, de Vries, J, Royal, CD, Ramesar, R, and Angwafo, FF. "Would you terminate a pregnancy affected by sickle cell disease? Analysis of views of patients in Cameroon." Journal of medical ethics 40.9 (September 2014): 615-620. Full Text